Courses

E&C-ENGR 130 Engineering Graphics Credits: 3

Introduction to Engineering Graphics with the use of the Computer Aided Design tools AutoCAD and SolidWorks. Introduction to 2D design with AutoCAD and introduction to 3D design with SolidWorks. Also an introduction to electrical circuit diagrams. No previous 2D or 3D CAD experience is necessary to take this class.

E&C-ENGR 216 Engineering Computation Credits: 4

Development, analysis and synthesis of structured computer programs for solving engineering problems in the Python, MATLAB, and C languages. Introduction to algorithms and data structures.

Prerequisites: MATH 110 (or equivalent).

E&C-ENGR 217 Engineering Computation Credits: 2

Students learn to develop, analyze and synthesize structured computer programs for solving engineering problems in the Python, MATLAB, and C languages, This course also provides an introduction to algorithms and data structures. This course is available by approval of the degree program committee if transfer credit has been approved for one of the listed programming languages.

Prerequisites: MATH 110 or equivalent.

E&C-ENGR 226 Logic Design Credits: 3

Design of combinational logic circuits, logic minimization techniques, design of sequential logic circuits, state machine design techniques, digital system design.

Co-requisites: E&C-ENGR 227.

E&C-ENGR 227 Logic Design Laboratory Credit: 1

Laboratory for E&C-ENGR 226. Experimental topics related to the design of combinational and sequential logic systems and small digital systems.

Co-requisites: E&C-ENGR 226.

E&C-ENGR 228 Introduction to Computer Design Credits: 3

This course covers computer organizations and fundamental computer design techniques. It also discusses design of computer data unit, control unit, input-output, microprogramming. Memory systems (RAM memory, Cache memory, interrupts, secondary memory) and direct memory access design is also discussed. Verilog HDL design is introduced and applied to small digital systems.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 226, E&C-ENGR 227.

Co-requisites: E&C-ENGR 229.

E&C-ENGR 229 Introduction to Computer Design Laboratory Credit: 1

This laboratory course covers experimental topics related to the design of digital computer systems and arithmetic circuits which students study in the E&C-ENGR 228.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 226, E&C-ENGR 227.

Co-requisites: E&C-ENGR 228.

E&C-ENGR 241 Applied Engineering Analysis I Credits: 3

Partial differentiation, multiple integrals, first and second order ordinary differential equations, partial fractions, and Laplace transform solution of Ordinary Differential Equations.

Prerequisites: Math 220.

E&C-ENGR 250 Engineering Mechanics and Thermodynamics Credits: 3

This course concentrates on practical concepts in mechanics and thermodynamics for E&C-ENGR majors, such as the practical use of forces, moments, couples, centroids, and moment of inertia, friction, manipulating systems of rigid bodies in motion and applying conservation of energy to gases, liquids, and solids. Materials will also be addressed.

Prerequisites: MATH 220, PHYSICS 240.

E&C-ENGR 276 Circuit Theory I Credits: 3

Kirchoff's circuit laws, Ohm's Law, nodal and mesh analyses, source transformations, superposition, Thevenin and Norton equivalents, transient analysis of 1st and 2nd order systems. AC circuit analysis, phasors, impedance, sinusoidal steady-state responses, operational amplifiers and PSpice.

Prerequisites: PHYSICS 250.

Co-requisites: E&C-ENGR 341R.

E&C-ENGR 277 Circuit Theory I Lab Credit: 1

Introduction to the use and limitations of basic instruments used in electrical testing and measurement. Experimental techniques and laboratory safety. Data gathering, interpretation and presentation. Preparation of laboratory reports. Experimental work supporting theoretical concepts developed in E&C-ENGR 276.

Co-requisites: E&C-ENGR 276.

E&C-ENGR 301 Fundamental Topics in Electrical and Computer Engineering Credits: 1-4

Undergraduate topics in electrical or computer engineering.

E&C-ENGR 302 Electromagnetic Waves and Fields Credits: 4

Maxwell's equations plane waves in lossless and lossy media transmission line theory and Smith Chart - single stub matching rectangular waveguides - TE and TM modes rectangular cavity resonators electromagnetic radiation from Hertzian point sources, dipole and look antennas simple linear arrays Friis formula for radar and wireless systems.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 341R, E&C-ENGR 376, PHYSICS 250.

E&C-ENGR 330 Electronic Circuits Credits: 3

Application of operational amplifiers, semiconductors device physics, elementary analysis and design of analog electronic circuits that utilize diodes, BJT's, and MOSFET's in single and multistage amplifiers with passive loads and power amplifiers; DC biasing, small signal analysis and calculation of frequency responses. The use of CAD (Spice) in the analysis and design of electronic circuits.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 276.

Co-requisites: E&C-ENGR 331.

E&C-ENGR 331 Electronic Circuits Laboratory Credit: 1

Laboratory experiments in the application of operational amplifiers, the analysis, design, and testing of single and multistage amplifiers with passive loads, and the measurement of frequency response.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 276, E&C-ENGR 277.

Co-requisites: E&C-ENGR 330.

E&C-ENGR 334 Semiconductors and Devices Credits: 3

Junction theory, semiconductor diodes and models, bipolar transistors and models, field-effect transistors and models, selected electron devices and models.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 341R, PHYSICS 250

E&C-ENGR 341R Applied Engineering Analysis II Credits: 3

Complex numbers; Euler's formulas, analytic functions, Taylor and Laurent series; Cauchy residue theorem and application to evaluation of integrals; linear algebra, eigenvalue and eigenvectors; Fourier series and transforms.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 241.

E&C-ENGR 358 Introduction to Control Systems Credits: 3

Study of feedback techniques, with applications to control systems. Includes modeling, applications of Bode plot, root locus, state-variable, and Nyquist methods.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 380.

E&C-ENGR 376 Circuit Theory II Credits: 3

Power, transformers, three-phase circuits, two-port networks, the theory and application of Laplace Transforms.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 276.

Co-requisites: E&C-ENGR 377.

E&C-ENGR 377 Circuit Theory II Lab Credit: 1

Continuation of E&C-ENGR 277 introducing the use of additional instruments used in electrical testing and measurements. Statistical data evaluation methods. Experimental work supporting concepts developed in E&C-ENGR 376.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 277.

Co-requisites: E&C-ENGR 376.

E&C-ENGR 380 Signals and Systems Credits: 3

Continuous and discrete-time signals and systems, frequency response, Fourier analysis of discrete and continuous signals and systems and use of z, Fourier, Discrete Fourier, and Fast Fourier Transforms.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 341R.

Co-requisites: E&C-ENGR 381.

E&C-ENGR 381 Signals and Systems Lab Credit: 1

Computer Laboratory for E&C-ENGR 380. Various signal processing software programs (MATLAB and DSP) are used to investigate properties and applications of continuous and discrete time signals and systems.

Co-requisites: E&C-ENGR 380.

E&C-ENGR 400 Problems in Electrical and Computer Engineering Credits: 1-4

Analytic or experimental problems pertaining to electrical or computer engineering.

Prerequisites: Senior standing.

E&C-ENGR 401 Topics In Electrical And Computer Engineering Credits: 1-4

Topics covering current and new technical developments in electrical or computer engineering.

Prerequisites: Senior standing.

E&C-ENGR 401AN Topics in Electrical Engineering Credits: 1-4

E&C-ENGR 401AR Topics in Electrical Engineering Credits: 1-4

Topics in Electrical Engineering

E&C-ENGR 401AS Topics In Electrical Engineering Credits: 1-4

E&C-ENGR 401AV Topics In Electrical Engineering Credits: 1-4

E&C-ENGR 401BE Topics in Electrical Engineering Credits: 1-4

Topics in Electrical Engineering

E&C-ENGR 401BI Topics In Electrical Engineering Credits: 1-4

E&C-ENGR 401CA Topics In Electrical Engineering Credits: 1-4

E&C-ENGR 401CI Topics in Electrical Engineering Credits: 1-4

E&C-ENGR 401DE Special Topics ECE Credits: 1-4

E&C-ENGR 401EC Topics In Electrical Engineering Credits: 1-4

E&C-ENGR 401EP Topics in ECE Credits: 1-4

E&C-ENGR 401ES Topics in Electrical Engineering Credits: 1-4

Topics in Electrical Engineering

E&C-ENGR 401FE Topics In Electrical Engineering Credits: 1-4

E&C-ENGR 401H Topics In Electrical And Computer Engineering Credits: 1-4

E&C-ENGR 401IR Topics In Electrical Engineering Credits: 1-4

E&C-ENGR 401KI Topics in Electrical and Computer Engineering Credits: 1-4

Topics covering current and new technical developments in electrical or computer engineering.

Prerequisites: Senior standing.

E&C-ENGR 401NM Topics In Electrical Engineering Credits: 1-4

E&C-ENGR 401NN Topics in Electrical and Computer Engineering Credits: 1-4

Topics covering current and new technical developments in electrical or computer engineering.

Prerequisites: Senior standing.

E&C-ENGR 401PE Topics in Electrical and Computer Engineering Credits: 1-4

Topics covering current and new technical developments in electrical or computer engineering.

Prerequisites: Senior standing.

E&C-ENGR 401PG Topics in Electrical and Computer Engineering Credits: 1-4

Topics covering current and new technical developments in electrical or computer engineering.

Prerequisites: Senior standing.

E&C-ENGR 401PL Topics in Electrical and Computer Engineering Credits: 1-4

Topics covering current and new technical developments in electrical or computer engineering.

Prerequisites: Senior standing.

E&C-ENGR 401PQ Topics in Electrical Engineering Credits: 1-4

Topics covering current and new technical developments in electrical or computer engineering.

Prerequisites: Senior standing.

E&C-ENGR 401PV Topics In Electrical And Computer Engineering Credits: 1-4

E&C-ENGR 401RD Topics in Electrical and Computer Engineering Credits: 1-4

Topics covering current and new technical developments in electrical or computer engineering.

Prerequisites: Senior standing.

E&C-ENGR 401RS Topics in Electrical and Computer Engineering Credits: 1-4

Topics covering current and new technical developments in electrical or computer engineering.

Prerequisites: Senior standing.

E&C-ENGR 401SC Topics In Electrical And Computer Engineering Credits: 1-4

E&C-ENGR 401SI Topics in Electrical Engineering Credits: 1-4

Topics in Electrical Engineering

E&C-ENGR 401VL Topics in Electrical Engineering Credits: 1-4

E&C-ENGR 401XX Topics in Electrical and Computer Engineering Credits: 1-4

Topics covering current and new technical developments in electrical or computer engineering.

Prerequisites: Senior standing.

E&C-ENGR 402 Senior Design I Credits: 2

First capstone design course in electrical and computer engineering. Provides and accounts for laboratory, library, research and other work needed for the development of the project. Stresses oral presentations.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 302, E&C-ENGR 380, E&C-ENGR 430, E&C-ENGR 428R, School of Computing & Engineering Student.

E&C-ENGR 402WI Senior Design I Credits: 2

First capstone design course in electrical and computer engineering. Provides and accounts for laboratory, library, research and other work needed for the development of the project. Stresses oral presentations.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 302, E&C-ENGR 380, E&C-ENGR 430, E&C-ENGR 428R, RooWriter.

E&C-ENGR 403 Senior Design II Credit: 1

Second capstone design course in electrical and computer engineering. Project management, professional practice, ethical and engineering economic considerations and development of written and oral presentation skills. Provides laboratory experience in prototyping, fabrication, and troubleshooting of the design project. Stresses written and oral presentation.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 402.

E&C-ENGR 403WI Senior Design II Credits: 3

Second capstone design course in electrical and computer engineering. Project management, professional practice, ethical and engineering economic considerations and development of written and oral presentation skills. Provides laboratory experience in prototyping, fabrication, and troubleshooting of the design project. Stresses written and oral presentation.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 402WI, RooWriter.

E&C-ENGR 412 Principles of RF/Microwave Engineering Credits: 3

General aspects of TE, TM and TEM mode propagation in waveguides; circular waveguides; optical waveguides; wave propagation on dielectric backed conductors; wire antennas; equivalence principle and aperture antennas; antenna impedance and mutual coupling in arrays; array beamforming; scattering matrix representations; impedance matching; resonators; filters, couplers and power-dividers; microstriplines and striplines; r.f. propagation in wireless and radar systems; conformal mapping techniques and applications (optional).

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 302, E&C-ENGR 380, E&C-ENGR 381, MATLAB proficiency.

E&C-ENGR 414 Microwave Engineering for Wireless Systems Credits: 3

Microwave networks; s-, z-, y- and abcd matrices; signal flow graphs; circular waveguides; stripline & microstrip characteristics; impedance transformers; power dividers and directional couplers; microwave filters; microwave resonators; active microwave circuits.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 302, E&C-ENGR 380, MATLAB proficiency.

E&C-ENGR 415 Microwave Engineering for Wireless Systems Lab Credit: 1

Design & performance simulation of microwave filters and active microwave circuits; comparative analysis of impedance transformers; use of CAD tools in microwave circuit design.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 414.

E&C-ENGR 416 Neural and Adaptive Systems Credits: 3

A hands-on introduction to the theory and applications of neurocomputing. Includes classification, function approximation, supervised and unsupervised learning, time series analysis, and adaptive filtering using different feed-forward and recurrent artificial neural networks.

Prerequisites: COMP-SCI 394R, E&C-ENGR 341R.

E&C-ENGR 418 Introduction to Radar Systems Credits: 3

Radar equation; MT, Pulsed Doppler and Tracking Radars; detection of and information from radar signals; radar antennas; transmitters and receivers; radar propagation and clutter.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 302, E&C-ENGR 380, E&C-ENGR 381.

E&C-ENGR 420 Advanced Engineering Computation Credits: 2

Programming and computational analysis principles and techniques for various problems in embedded programming, applied computation, and signal processing.

Co-requisites: E&C-ENGR 428R and E&C-ENGR 429.

E&C-ENGR 424 Computer Design Credits: 3

Design of general purpose computers including arithmetic and control units, input/output, memory systems, microprogramming and introduction to parallel structures and processing.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 226.

E&C-ENGR 426 Microcomputer Architecture and Interfacing Credits: 3

Advanced microprocessor architecture and programming; interfacing and programming of peripherals. Parallel and serial communication, interrupts, direct memory access, coprocessors.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 226.

E&C-ENGR 427 Microcomputer Laboratory Credit: 1

Laboratory for E&C-ENGR 426. Microprocessor hardware and software involving interfacing of peripherals to 8-bit and 16-bit microprocessor. Simple D/A conversion, music composition, and various programmable controllers.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 227.

Co-requisites: E&C-ENGR 426.

E&C-ENGR 428R Embedded Systems Credits: 3

This course examines the hardware/software aspects associated with developing microcontroller-based computer systems. The students learn about the architecture and assembly language for popular microcontrollers and how to take advantage of a variety of input/output options that include binary ports, A/D and D/A converters, communication ports, and interfacing techniques for various applications.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 426, E&C-ENGR 427.

Co-requisites: E&C-ENGR 429.

E&C-ENGR 429 Embedded Systems Laboratory Credit: 1

The laboratory introduces the students to a variety of challenging design projects using microcontroller interfacing techniques to develop real world applications, such as digital thermometer and digital pressure monitoring systems. Students must produce an individual design project.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 426, E&C-ENGR 427.

Co-requisites: E&C-ENGR 428R.

E&C-ENGR 430 Microelectronic Circuits Credits: 3

The analysis and design of feedback amplifiers, oscillators and of microelectronic circuits that employ diodes, MOSFETs and BJTs in current mirrors, amplifiers with active loads, differential amplifiers, operational amplifiers, and CMOS Logic gates. The use of CAD (Spice) in the analysis and design of feedback amplifiers and microelectronic circuits.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 330, E&C-ENGR 331.

Co-requisites: E&C-ENGR 431.

E&C-ENGR 431 Microelectronic Circuits Laboratory Credit: 1

Laboratory experiments in the analysis, design and testing of feedback amplifiers; microelectronic circuits that employ diodes, MOSFETs and BJTs in feedback amplifiers, oscillators, current mirrors, amplifiers with active loads, differential amplifiers, operational amplifiers, and CMOS logic gates.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 330, E&C-ENGR 331.

Co-requisites: E&C-ENGR 430.

E&C-ENGR 433 Analog Integrated Circuit Design Credits: 3

Principles of the design and analysis of analog integrated circuits. Study of MOS device physics and second order effects, device fabrication and layout, noise, single-stage and differential amplifiers, current mirrors, reference circuits, op amps and frequency compensation. Introduction to CAS circuit design and Cadence design tools.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 276.

E&C-ENGR 436 Power Electronics I Credits: 3

Power electronic device characteristics, important circuit and component concepts, phase controlled rectifiers, line communicated inverters and AC phase control. Includes laboratory projects.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 430.

E&C-ENGR 442 Introduction to VLSI Design Credits: 3

The goal of this course is to familiarize students with the design fundamentals and layout of Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) Circuits. The primary focus of this course is complementary MOSFET (CMOS) based digital integrated circuits design and analysis. However, the topics regarding transistor, interconnect, and circuit implementation are relevant to digital, analog and mixed-signal integrated circuits. This course is designed to be a comprehensive foundation for advanced micro- and nano-electronics courses. To familiarize the students with the realities of design complexities they will get exposure to commercial CAD tools in a separate lab co-requisite class. Recommended preparation: Basic Electronics.

Co-requisites: E&C-ENGR 443.

Cross Listings: E&C-ENGR 5542.

E&C-ENGR 454 Robotic Control and Intelligence Credits: 3

Introduces robotics; robot system characteristics; robot motive power systems; geometric structure of robots; sensors and feedback; control applications and algorithms; data acquisition and output actuation functions; robots and Artificial Intelligence; microprocessor applications in robotics.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 226 (or E&C-ENGR 426), E&C-ENGR 358.

E&C-ENGR 458 Automatic Control System Design Credits: 3

Techniques for feedback system design & analysis: compensator design examples, state variable methods, non-linear systems, and sampled-data control systems.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 380, E&C-ENGR 358.

E&C-ENGR 460 Introduction to Power Systems Credits: 3

Magnetic circuitry in general and in machinery; DC machine theory, operation, applications, transformer circuits, synchronous machine theory, operation applications, basic principles of energy conversion, introduction to power electronics, and basic principles of power transmission and control.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 276.

E&C-ENGR 461 Electric Power Lab Credits: 3

Application of fundamentals and concepts of power systems to practical power plan and industrial applications. Operational limitations of all components of power system equipment. Single and Three Phase Circuits, Generators/Alternators, Transformers, Motors, and specialty items (Coronal mass Ejection, Ferroresonance, System Protection).

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 466.

E&C-ENGR 462 Symmetrical Components Analysis of Power Systems Credits: 3

Short circuit analysis using symmetrical components. Simultaneous faults and open conductors.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 466.

E&C-ENGR 463 Advanced Sustainable Energy Systems Engineering Credits: 3

Sustainable Energy Systems Engineering focuses on understanding the theory and application of emerging energy technologies, including solar, wind, biomass, oceanic, geothermal, hydropower, fuel cell (hydrogen), nuclear, and other more exotic energy sources. A premise of the course is that a sustainable energy technology must both be technically feasible and economically viable. Renewable energy sources will be highlighted with a focus on projections for a sustainable energy future. Graduate students will be assigned an additional project to work.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 466.

E&C-ENGR 466 Power Systems I Credits: 3

Electric power system fundamentals, rotating machines in general, synchronous, induction and DC machines, methods of power system analysis and design, modeling of power systems components such as transmission lines, transformers and generators, and analysis of steady state operation of power system under balanced conditions.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 376.

E&C-ENGR 467 Power Systems II Credits: 3

Power system matrices. Power flow analysis. Gauss-Seidel and Newton-Raphson techniques. Fast-decoupled load flow. Economic dispatch. Voltage control system. Power system control.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 358, E&C-ENGR 466.

E&C-ENGR 468 Electric Power Distribution Systems Credits: 3

Operation and design of utility and industrial distribution systems including distribution system planning; load characteristics; application of distribution transformers; design of subtransmission lines, distribution substations, primary systems, secondary systems; application of capacitors; voltage regulation and reliability.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 460.

E&C-ENGR 470 Reliability of Electric Power Systems Credits: 3

Principles of reliability as applied to Power Systems with an overview of current methods to measure reliability of Power Systems are introduced. Analytical and Monte Carlo models for component state and system state duration, with contingency analysis and linear programming for optimal power flow are also covered. Restoration times and cost assessment after component or system failures due to internal or external problems provide focus to practical operating principles.

Prerequisites: COMP-SCI 394R (or equivalent), E&C-ENGR 466.

E&C-ENGR 472 Power Generation Systems Credits: 3

Multi discipline survey of power generation systems and subsystems, including coal-fired steam, co-generation and combined cycle, and combustion turbines. With a goal of reviewing all the major subsystems, this course exposes the electrical engineer to all the mechanical, thermodynamic, and chemical processes of power generation systems.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 466.

E&C-ENGR 474 Introduction to Communication Systems Credits: 3

Introduction to principles and fundamentals of communication systems. Signal representation and analysis, Fourier transform and applications, probability and random variables, analog and digital modulation techniques.

Prerequisites: COMP-SCI 394R, E&C-ENGR 380, E&C-ENGR 474.

E&C-ENGR 476 Introduction to Wireless Communication Systems Credits: 3

Principles of wireless communication analysis and design. Digital communication basics, cellular radio, wireless PCS communications, multiple access techniques, channel coding and equalization, and standards of digital cellular/PCS systems.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 474.

E&C-ENGR 477 Introduction to Wireless Networking Credits: 3

Principles of the design and analysis of wireless networks. Study of medium access control, administration routing and adaptation to the complexities of the wireless environment. Investigation of networking issues in the IEEE 802.11 family of standards, IEEE 802.15 (Bluetooth), Long Term Evolution, cellular, satellite, ad hoc, and sensor networks.

Prerequisites: COMP-SCI 394R.

E&C-ENGR 480 Digital Signal Processing Credits: 3

Concepts, analytic tools, design techniques used in computer processing of signals: signal representation, sampling, discrete-time system analysis, recursive/non-recursive filters, design/implementation of digital filters.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 380.

E&C-ENGR 484 Digital Image Processing Credits: 3

Fundamentals of digital image processing hardware and software, including digital image acquisition, display, compression, transforms and segmentation.

Prerequisites: E&C-ENGR 380, experience in a high-level programming language.

E&C-ENGR 486 Pattern Recognition Credits: 3

Pattern recognition techniques of applications such as automatic recognition for speech, visual inspection systems, clinical medicine, automatic photographic recognition systems and advanced automation systems.

Prerequisites: Senior standing.

E&C-ENGR 491 Internship Credits: 6

Students may participate in structured internships under the joint supervision of an employer and a faculty member. The student must carry out significant professional responsibilities that also have academic merit. The number of credit hours is based on the quality of the academic experience. Available for credit/nocredit only and students must be in good standing with at least 18 credit hours of E&C-ENGR courses counting towards the degree. Registration by consent number only: petition forms for E&C-ENGR 491 internships are available in the office of CSEE Division and on the web.

Prerequisites: At least 18 hours of E&C-ENGR courses toward the degree.

E&C-ENGR 497 Directed Readings Credits: 1-4

Readings in an area selected by an undergraduate student in consultation with a faculty member. Arrangements must be made prior to registration.

E&C-ENGR 499 Undergraduate Research Credits: 1-3

Completion of a project, including a final written report, under the direction of a faculty member. A prospectus must be accepted prior to registration.